Three-Dimensional Motion Analysis of Right Upper Limb Movement in the Bowing Arm of String-Playing Musicians



The objective of this study is to measure, using digital photogrammetric methods, the
angular changes in the wrist and elbow joints which are active in basic bow drives while playing the
violin. This study consists of nine violin players. The Pictran software was used in the photogrammetric
restitution. The wrist and elbow joints of the right upper extremity were filmed on a calibrated test field
by using ametric cameras and then transferred to the computer environment. As a result of the
evaluation of the markers in image, the movement angles of the joints as well as ulna and the fifth
metacarpal bones were taken as the basis, and thus, the vertical inclination of the arm, forearm and hand
were found out. The angular changes in the joint movements were reconstructed in 3D, and the results
obtained were compared. When the standart deviations of the angular changes and inclinations are
considered, it is possible to say that the angular changes do not vary much depending on the
individuals, but, as for inclination, individual difference vary significantly. The fact that individual
differences vary much in the playing techniques shows that to teach proper technique is so significant.
When these active joints are used effectively and properly while playing, it will also help to eliminate
possible problems in the future. In addition, it will, in a sense, provide angular standardisation.


Digital photogrammetry; violin; motoin analysis; upper limb; joint.

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